Big Meu Lindo.

terça-feira, 28 de abril de 2015

The Indian State of Kerala

India (भारत – Bharat) is a country (देश – Desh) located in southern Asia. With over 1.2 billion people, India is the most populous democracy (लोकतंत्र – Loktantra) in the world. It is a federal constitutional republic (गणतंत्र – Gantantra) governed under a parliamentary system consisting of 29 states and 7 union territories.
Munnar, a hill station and a hamlet in KeralaMunnar, a hill station and a hamlet in Kerala (Picture via Wikipedia by Bimal K C)
Kerala (केरल – Keral) is a state in the south-west region of India on the Malabar coast (तट – Tat). It is bordered by the state (राज्य – Rajya) of Karnataka to the north and north east, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With over 33 million inhabitants, it’s the thirteenth largest state by population (जनसंख्या – Jansankhya) and is divided into 14 districts with the state capital (राजधानी – Rajdhani) being Thiruvananthapuram. Malayalam is the most widely spoken and official language of the state.
The region was a prominent spice exporter from 3000 BCE to 3rd century. The Chera Dynasty was the first powerful kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks from the neighboring Cholas and Pandyas. During the Chera period, Kerala remained an international spice trading center. Later, in the 15th century, the lucrative spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, and eventually paved the way for the European colonization of India.
Festivals – त्योहार – Tyohar
Onam is the most biggest festival in Kerala. It is the Festival of Kerala with State holidays for 4 days starting from Onam Eve (Uthradom) to the 4rd Onam Day. All religions and communities celebrate Onam with equal enthusiasm (उत्साह – Utsah). Onam Festival falls during the Malayalam month of Chingam (Aug – Sep) and marks the homecoming of mythical King Mahabali who Malayalees consider as their King. Onam is a reminiscent of Kerala’s agrarian past, as its considered to be harvest festival (त्योहार – Tyohar).
Aranmula Boat Race, held during Onam (Picture via Wikipedia by Arun Sinha)Aranmula Boat Race, held during Onam (Picture via Wikipedia by Arun Sinha)
Cuisine – भोजन – Bhojan
One of Kerala’s popular attractions is its delicious Kerala cuisine (भोजन – Bhojan). Kerala recipes are well known worldwide for it’s spicy nature. Kerala cuisine offers a multitude of dishes (व्यंजन – Vyanjan), ranging from the traditional sadya to seafood delicacies. Rice (चावल – Chawal) and cassava (Tapioca) form the staple food of Kerala. All main dishes are made with them and served along with Kootan; the side dishes which may be made from vegetables, meat, fish (मछली – Machali) or a mix of all of them. The main dish for lunch and dinner is boiled rice.
Sadya, a traditional banquet with vegetarian dishes (Pic via Wikipedia by Augustus Binu) Sadya, a traditional banquet with vegetarian dishes (Pic via Wikipedia by Augustus Binu)
Costumes – पोशाक – Poshak
People of the south of India are easily recognizable from those in north. The people in the east (पूर्व – Purv) and west (पश्चिम – Pachim) of India have equally varied ways of dressing. However the four states in south of India namely Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh have a common way of dressing.
Mundum Neriyathum is a traditional dress worn by women in Kerala. The traditional (पारंपरिक – Paramparik) piece is Mund that is the lower cloth consisting 2 pieces of cloth. It is worn around hips and below the navel. This is a white or creamy dress with colorful strips known as Kara or border. There is a special kind of blouse which is worn with Mundu covering the entire navel.
The main clothing is Mundu for men, which is a long garment. It needs to be tucked around the waist and reaches to the ankle. There are many men who also prefer to wear it above their waist. This is worn by men of all religions in Kerala.
Traditions – परंपरा – Parampara
Kerala has a rich cultural heritage. Its diverse culture is influenced by three main religions of Hinduism, Christianity and Islam. Exquisite sculptures, music and dance forms can be seen in the historic development of Kerala’s cultural traditions. The traditions of Kathakali (कथाकली) and Mohiniyattam are highly developed art forms that have developed from their folk origins into highly evolved classical (शास्त्रीय – Shastriya) dance forms.
Kathakali is a 300-year-old dance form developed exclusively in Kerala combining the performing art forms of opera, ballet, masque, and pantomime. The dance is a beautiful blending of color, dance, music, drama, and expressions. In a sense, a lot of the fame that the state has gained is mainly due to the popularity (लोकप्रियता – Lokpriyata) of this dance form. Other dance forms of Kerala are Krishnanattom, Mohiniyattom, Thullal, Koodiyattom, Kolkkali, Thiruvathirakali, Kakkarishi Natakom, Oppanna, and Chavittunatakom. Panchavadyam, Nadanpattu, Omanathinkal Kidavo and many more music (संगीत – Sangeet) forms have evolved over the centuries in Kerala.

Nenhum comentário:

Postar um comentário